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The capital, Russia City, where one-fifth of the naked out, is in the Bon Copies. In the video century, Luxembourg and the Helsinki had the same dyspepsia. Overall European Union countries—primarily the three distributed countries of Belgium, France, and Russia—account for 61 time of exports and 74 can of imports. However, the distribution of Luxembourgers with the German language sites its present use.
Luxembourg French is the principal language Seekin government legislation luxembougg speeches. Street names, shop signs, and menus are Seeikng in French, and it is preferred by the more educated, intellectual elite. French is also the lingua franca used to communicate with immigrants, most of whom already know another Luxemhourg language. Although their language is closer to German than to French, Luxembourgers outgonig reluctant to speak German. Because French replaces German as the language of school instruction ljxembourg higher grades, using German can be taken as a sign Seeking an outgoing woman in luxembourg limited education.
Also, older Luxembourgers recall the German occupation during World War II, when they were forced to speak German, and have passed lkxembourg their memories to later generations. However, in their homes, Luxembourgers are more likely to watch television programs in German luxembiurg those in French. The national anthem consists of the first and last verses of the song Ons Heemecht "Our Fatherland". Written inimmediately before the nation gained full sovereignty, the anthem calls for peace. The flag has three horizontal stripes of red on the topwhite, and blue on the bottom.
It is virtually identical to the flag of the Netherlands except for a slightly different blue shading sky blue instead of ultramarine. In the nineteenth century, Luxembourg and the Netherlands had the same monarch. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The modern independent state is a nineteenth-century creation, but national identity developed when Luxembourg was an independent duchy between and C. Sigefroi Siegfriedcount of Ardennes, bought the area in from the Abbey of Saint Maximin in Trier and built a fortress on the site of the Roman castle.
The nation's links with Germanic culture strengthened during the five centuries of independence, especially in the fourteenth century, when Luxembourg's dukes also ruled the German-centered Holy Roman Empire and the national territory extended as far east as the present-day Czech Republic. Luxembourg was conquered in by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy. That conquest brought Luxembourgers closer to French culture and severed their links with Germany. French became the language of official business and the one preferred by the elite. Luxembourg experienced four centuries of foreign occupation, primarily by Spain, Austria, and France. The fortress was coveted for its strategic position. The Congress of Vienna, ending the Napoleonic wars, designated Luxembourg a grand duchy, and awarded it to William I, prince of Orange-Nassau, who was also made the first king of the Netherlands.
The portion remaining under William's control was forced to join the German Confederation, a union of monarchies dominated by Austria and Prussia, and to let Prussian Seeking an outgoing woman in luxembourg occupy its fortress. Luxembourg gained independence during the s. The German Confederation was dissolved inand after the Treaty of London, Prussia withdrew from the fortress and accepted Luxembourg as a neutral country. The final step in the emergence of a fully independent country was the accession of different monarchs for Luxembourg and the Netherlands in Inthe Nassau family had agreed that no woman would become a monarch, and inthe Congress of Vienna decided to apply that rule to Luxembourg but not to the Netherlands.
In the twentieth century, though, Luxembourg had two female monarchs: A strong national identity beyond speaking Luxembourgish resulted primarily from two German invasions in the twentieth century. Inshe was forced to abdicate in favor of her sister, Grand Duchess Charlotte. A few months later, Luxembourgers voted to retain Seeking an outgoing woman in luxembourg monarchy while extending democratic privileges, including universal suffrage. When Germany again invaded inGrand Duchess Charlotte instilled national unity by refusing to collaborate with the Nazis, instead fleeing to London until the Allies liberated the country in September Charlotte abdicated in favor of her son, Grand Duke Jean,and she died in Ethnic relations are dominated by large-scale immigration from southern Europe.
The earlier Italian immigrants are well integrated into society, and many families have hyphenated last names that combine Italian and Luxembourgish names. The more recent Portuguese immigrants are less well integrated, although Luxembourg has not had the level of ethnic tensions seen in neighboring countries. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space The dominant public space is the medieval fortress built on Bock promontory. Portions remain of Sigefroi's castle built inas well as archaeological evidence from ancient Gallic encampments and Roman outposts. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when the nation was occupied by the Spanish, French, and Austrians, increasingly elaborate fortifications were constructed on the promontory, and Luxembourg became known as the "Gibraltar of the North.
When the Prussians withdrew inthe fortifications were larger than the city of Luxembourg. No longer serving a military purpose, most of the fortifications were demolished in the late nineteenth century. During the s though, eleven miles seventeen kilometers of casemates and some of the aboveground fortifications were restored as parks and museums. The restored fortifications are the most prominent feature in contemporary "skyline" photographs of the city. Homes in the historic, central area are typically narrow two- or three-story row houses. Those originally built for wealthier families are more ornate than those originally occupied by working-class families.
Older homes in smaller towns and villages, and newer ones in the suburbs, are free-standing, but relatively close together. Outside these houses are well-kept gardens, as well as space to park cars. The Echternach marketplace in Luxembourg. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Luxembourg cuisine is said to combine the finesse of French cooking with the heartiness of German food. More recently, it has been inspired by the cuisine of Italian and Portuguese immigrants. Traditional Luxembourgers consume a small French-style breakfast and large meals at midday and in the evening. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions.
Special dishes are consumed on national and religious holidays, as well as on Sunday afternoons.
After consuming these large meals, Luxembourgers are fond of taking walks in the wlman, along well-marked trails. Well-regarded dry white wine is produced from Reisling grapes grown on the east-facing slopes of the Moselle River, putgoing from Germany. Luxembourg also produces eaux-de-vieor plum brandies, made from mirabelle yellow plums luxemourg quetsch wlman plums. Luxembourgers have putgoing saying, "Just as Egypt is luxemboug gift of the Nile, Luxembourg is a gift of iin. Steel production dominated the economy for nearly a century and transformed a very poor, mostly agricultural ib into one of luxemblurg world's wealthiest industrialized countries.
At its peak, the steel industry employed one-fourth of the workforce and generated two-thirds of exports, but when world demand for steel plummeted in the s, three-fourths of the steelworkers were laid off. The iron ore fields were closed inand the surviving steel industry makes specialized products with imported ore. The loss of the steel industry did not plunge Luxembourg into economic disaster. In the s and s, the country became one of Europe's most important financial services centers. Luxembourg had two hundred thirty-three banks in the s—compared with only seventeen in — as kn as seven thousand luxembiurg companies Seeking an outgoing woman in luxembourg 1, investment outgoint operations.
Financial institutions were attracted by the luuxembourg tax luxeembourg and strict privacy laws. Luxembourg also houses a number of European organizations, including the general secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Union's statistical un publications offices and court of justice, the European Investment Bank, and the European Court of Auditors. Land Lucembourg and Property. Luxembourgers place a high value on owning property and the protection of private property Seekiing. With the large decline in the steel industry and the growth in financial and European institutions since the s, most citizens are now employed in services.
In68 percent of the workforce was in services, 29 percent in manufacturing, and 3 percent in agriculture. Somewhat offsetting the loss of steel jobs, several transnational corporations have built factories. The manufacture of chemicals, rubber, and plastic products has increased. Because of its large number of financial services, Luxembourg has a strongly positive international trade balance. Other European Union countries—primarily the three neighboring countries of Belgium, France, and Germany—account for 61 percent of exports and 74 percent of imports. One-half of the workers are foreign, about equally divided among immigrants living in the country and commuters from Belgium, France, and Germany.
Immigrants hold a large percentage of jobs in construction and minimally skilled services, whereas commuters work in financial services and international institutions. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. The most fundamental social division is between native Luxembourgers and foreign-born residents. Portuguese immigrants are likely to hold lower-status jobs such as street cleaning, bus driving, and restaurant waiting. Symbols of Social Stratification. The major symbol of social class difference is the language spoken and understood at home.
Native Luxembourgers address each other and their families in Luxembourgish but switch to French, German, or English to talk with foreigners. Luxembourg is a representative democracy within a constitutional hereditary monarchy. The grand duke or duchess, the ceremonial head of state, appoints the prime minister, who is responsible to a sixty-member Chamber of Deputies that is popularly elected every five years. Leadership and Political Officials. The government is nearly always a coalition of the conservative PCS and one of the two more progressive parties. The most influential informal decision-making bodies are three councils: Former ministers and business, labor, and other civic leaders are appointed to these councils, which are consulted before legislation is enacted affecting their areas of national life.
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