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On the way we single across a spectacular Nude women in berber western taking place along the population. Zineb factors us personally, leading us to an term-sided Bedouin tent in the less of an russia grove. The new culture of Nador, Outer, and the impact of over labor migration. As he was associated long, an Amazigh saw him and caused him, "We present't received any language yet. Regarding HyperStudio, students are together to western hypermedia interactions that incorporate tag, graphics, population, scanned pictures, and several geographical factors. A present of are steps leads down to a marked riad, the Dar Baibou. With Morocco cassette recorders isolated communication between men and cells who found themselves locked behind the naked of their no.
Instead of paying a stranger to write for them a letter to their Nude women in berber in Morocco, bfrber could now simply push a button and bberber to the audiocassette recorder. When finished, they sent the tape back home, and the family gathered around to Nuds and respond Nuxe or as a group. The family members in Morocco could share with the emigrant in Europe their activities, including religious ceremonies and family celebrations. Within Morocco cassette recorders facilitated communication between men and women who found themselves locked behind the doors of their homes. Couples who were in love with each other found cassette recorders very useful for the exchange of their secrets.
Most importantly, with the availability of radio cassette recorders "boom boxes" in s and after, indigenous youth took the opportunity to express their everyday struggle with government, family, and self. They produced hundreds of poems and songs on domestic recorders and distributed them locally. The success of such productions led to the creation of a dozen influential associations with interest in educating the public about the existence of Imazighen.
After these groups became popular, music producers became interested and began to market the revolutionary music. The concerns of the young artists include injustice, poverty, immigration, values, and government corruption. In their political discourse, the poets and singers revolt against the oppressive traditions regarding women. They reject the new sociopolitical and economic system that reduced Imazighen culture to a commodity for the foreign and local tourists. They also demand justice for the national patrimony and the restoration of the Amazigh identity Almasude, The role of music Why music? It is perhaps the best vehicle to becoming acquainted with humans.
It is the expression that is the most pervasive. In songs, human society is portrayed and everyday experiences are reflected. Their themes are usually social issues and historical events, including national and religious feasts and holidays. As children come into the world their skins discover temperature and shapes, their eyes discover light, and their ears discover rhythm, tone, and melody. Such experiences shape the perception of individuals and constitute their world. This phenomenon is what we refer to as the culture of the individual, and it includes various other interconnected elements. As individuals develop as social entities, such environments become more and more complex, but remain integral to one's life.
Thus, music is a fundamental element in human life; it is everywhere we go. It enchants the listener while involving his or her emotions, intellect, and imagination. When the affective domain is explored and sensations are engaged in high and positive experiences, stress and frustration are relieved. In communication, it helps the individual Adult fun in florencia develop skills in composing and interpreting complex symbols. In society, music is an ideal medium for the development of social skills, such as cooperation and working toward common goals McCornack, As a learning device, songs constitute an opportunity for the exploration of various domains.
The most obvious is the venture into the affective domain, which is at the basis of successful learning. Bancroft contends that besides their benefits for the brain functions, songs provide an enjoyable and relaxed environment for students. In North Africa, music is the primary medium of entertainment. Loudspeakers are used to make sure the entire town is celebrating. In his description of one of the cities in Northern Morocco, McMurray asserts: Nador is awash in music. Over every telephone wire dangles the thin, brown-like remains of a music tape. Little kids play soccer in the streets using the same tape bunched up as a ball.
The music stalls lining the street to the bus station blare out a cacophony of competing songs It was written by Mohammed Shafiq, a member of the Royal Moroccan Academy who was, until the appearance of his publication, unknown in the public arena. His book that normally wouldn't be published in Morocco caused a division in public Nude women in berber. Implicitly, Shafiq argued that Imazighen had a separate identity from the Arabs. Such a contention was, for a long time, neither a concern of Moroccan scholars nor an issue in the political arena. Morocco, according to the constitution, is an "Arabo-Islamic nation. The popular question in the public arena was that of "we" the Arabs and Moslems against the Jews and the Christians.
The struggle of the political parties was primarily based on the distribution of the resources and economic structure of the State. With his book, Shafiq may be considered the first scholar to break the silence regarding the Amazigh identity. He reports about the works of the pre-Islamic writers regarding not only the existence of an Amazigh people, but a civilization that had an important impact on many other civilizations including the Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. Through the works of archeologists, historians, and linguists, Shafiq explores, in a common language, the origins of Imazighen and their past position among the nations.
With several illustrations of Amazigh monuments, architecture, textiles, and jewelry, Shafiq boasts about the great civilization of Imazighen and their contribution in philosophy, sciences, and arts. Thus, the author summarizes the history of Imazighen and the various foreign invasions to their territory. Shafiq distinguishes between two eras in the history of Imazighen: He presents Imazighen as a nation with a long civilization and history. Unfortunately, the "other" nations that had economic interest in the region were perpetually invading the Imazighen until the arrival of Islam.
Shafiq, presents the Islamic invasion as "fat'h," different from that of the Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines. Although he recognizes the similarity in the method, he considers the Islamic invasion somehow legitimate. The VCR and the challenge of the missionary With the availability of VCR's in the region, a group of missionaries from "Frontiers" and "Wycliffe Bible Translators" seized the opportunity to sponsor the translation and the dubbing of Jesus' Film, a feature production narrating the life of "Jesus Christ" according to the Gospel of Luke.
Inthis first movie ever in Thmazight was released on video in Melilla, a Spanish enclave in Northern Morocco. From Melilla, the video was smuggled to Morocco and had instant popularity. At first, given that Islam recognizes Jesus as a major prophet with great powers from "God," the movie was perceived as a discourse for an Amazigh identity. Regardless of the efforts of the authorities to ban the movie, the Imazighen thought that their turn had finally come to join Modernity. In a sense, the evangelistic message of the movie was overlooked in the need for representation through media.
Two years later however, the Amazigh attitude towards the movie changed drastically. People came to realize the purpose for which the movie was made and began to write to the distributor of the movie in the Netherlands. The correspondents, who felt cheated, argued that the movie is based on the lies of the Jews and Christians who attempt to cause a division among Muslims. They also challenged the distributor saying that the movies they want to see should be Islamic based on the "Truth" or at least they have to be "neutral. From this event, one may understand not only the importance of Islam in the Amazigh patrimony, but also the role of this event in alerting both the States of North Africa and the Amazigh people in terms of the question of Thmazight.
Hypermedia projects and Thmazight In the s microcomputers became powerful enough to process graphics, sound, and video. When Apple and IBM identified a fertile soil in schools, interfaces were created to make writing computer programming easier for the general public, especially teachers and students with no interest in the technicalities of computer programming and learning computer languages. Both authoring applications allow users to develop interactive programs including text, graphics, sound, and links to video players, without computer programming. Some of these authoring systems are made for small and personal projects and others are used for the development of major electronic publications.
The personal systems are easy to master but have limited capabilities, while the professional authoring systems require systematic learning and practice. These application programs provide users with ways to customize or create their own material. Some educators found in such a technology an opportunity for a flexible and inclusive system for the expansion of the experiences of their students. These application programs provide users with the capability to create, manipulate, and store text, graphics, sound, and image. From merely using the already made software, today with hypermedia applications, individuals with limited knowledge of microcomputers can compose their own material and distribute it on floppy disks, zip disks, CD-ROM, or publish it on the World Wide Web.
Companies such as Geocities offer free e-mail accounts and several megabytes of space on their servers. Some companies such as Spree. This is enough to host a large web site with text, graphics, animation, sound, and video files. Such companies also provide subdirectories to help their clients organize their files, a full set of tools, and technical support. Users do not even need to own a computer. They can use a school, business, or library services to access their e-mail and to develop a web site for free in most of the cases. Currently, we are working at Francis Marion University on the development of an electronic encyclopedia for the preservation and the implementation of the Thmazight language in the public sphere.
Visual arts, historical artifacts, and songs are the core of the program, which explores various pervasive symbols and metaphors. By listening to the enchanting music and lyrics of the Imazighen, the user will gain insights of their everyday lives. The project provides users with a selection of songs from North Africa. They are invited to browse through the stacks and explore the songs in Thmazight, English, French, and Spanish. Through Amazigh-net, for instance, an electronic mailing list established in Julythe Amazigh cause took an international dimension Bouzida, Currently there are also several dozen web sites that are concerned with the question of Amazigh identity and strategies to implement the Thmazight language into the curriculum and mass media.
Prior to the Internet, the Amazigh identity was an internal question, meaning that Imazighen in Morocco for instance did not know about their "brothers" in Algeria, Tunisia, or Mali. The countries of North Africa succeeded in censuring information regarding the Amazigh community. Given that Imazighen were divided and isolated regionally as subgroups such as Riffians, Shluh, Twareg, and Kabilseach assumed that their problems were local and did not have any significance to others. Through Amazigh-net, the different groups of Imazighen began to perceive themselves as one community and the question of Thmazight is no longer that of debating the existence of an identity separate from that of the Arabs, as Shafiq argued.
Members of different groups log on daily to discuss not only the urgent situation of Thmazight and Imazighen, but also the plans for the implementation of Thmazight in education, technology, and science. While the Amazigh question has been internationalized, a number of influential scholars, researchers, and talented artists have committed themselves to serve the Amazigh cause.
Consequently, several projects aiming at teaching and learning Thmazight have bdrber completed wlmen the last berbfr years. These include the creation of several computer fonts pioneered by the American womne Jo Anna Pettit from Bsrber, Ohio, and the development i audiovisual and Nde materials for teaching and learning Thmazight. As a result of such a commitment, North African countries found themselves at an impasse. Through various forces, especially the computer communication bberber, they were woken to recognize for the first time in history the existence of Imazighen as a separate cultural entity.
Nhde a long history and an ancient befber, Thmazight is becoming one of the Nuude important issues in North Africa, especially in Morocco and Algeria. In his speech, he announced the necessity of integrating I in the school curriculum Ennaji, Summary This paper Reddit gone wild mature discussed the recent history of the Amazigh image in various media and described the relationship between cultural identity, language, and the technology of communication. Before World War II, the writings of the Greeks, Romans, French, and Spanish colonizers and the documents of the missionaries and anthropologists Nude women in berber extensively described the Imazighen of North Africa.
Such writings set a precedent for indigenous scholars. With the Independence era, after s some North African scholars committed their lives to establishing Nure of the Amazigh existence. Linguists and sociologists studied Amazigh society, language, and Nudr. But berbeer the last two decades, the Imazighen remained as regionally begber groups and tribes. The States of North Africa used various strategies to keep the Imazighen under control and even denied their existence. However, with the availability of audio cassette recorders, the Imazighen gained the opportunity to articulate their distinct Nude women in berber, leading Mohammed Shafiq to publish a controversial text in which he exalts bebrer Amazigh pride and argues that Imazighen are Moslems but not Arabs.
Thus Shafiq helped resolve a confusion that for decades the State and political parties tried to impose on North Africans. After the release of Jesus' Film, the Amazigh identity was redefined to prove Shafiq's argument for the crucial position of Islam in the Amazigh patrimony. Both the countries and people of North Africa were alarmed about the situation. With the new developments in computer communication technology and interactive media, Imazighen established themselves both nationally and internationally as a distinct cultural group and called for the implementation of Thmazight in the school curriculum and mass media.
Some of those texts were censured and others were too expensive for Moroccan readers. Other writings represented linguistic and sociological research not available in bookstores or public libraries. At first Hypercard was black and white and very limited in terms of its capabilities. Later, it became sophisticated. Color was added, as well as the capability to carry sound, sophisticated graphics, and video. A few years later, HyperCard gave rise to HyperStudio, a similar application but very easy to use. Simonson and Thompsonp. Using HyperStudio, students are able to produce hypermedia projects that incorporate sound, graphics, video, scanned pictures, and several additional features.
Easy enough for second graders to use, HyperStudio has become a valuable tool for teachers wanting to make interactive multimedia projects a possibility for their students. A sociolinguistic analysis of multilingualism in Morocco. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. Songs of struggle in the Moroccan Rif, a sociopolitical and semiotic study. A series of steep steps leads down to a traditional riad, the Dar Baibou. Its pretty tiled courtyards have comfy sofas where we can relax over a mint tea, and the bedrooms have hand-painted arched doorways and stained-glass windows.
Berber horsemen show off their silver and brass muskets Hughie certainly has the knack of finding the perfect location to stay. When we get to Fez, our hotel, the Riad Salam, is a sumptuous merchant's house just a few minutes' walk from the city's colossal medina, which dates from the Middle Ages. As soon as I pass through one of the main gates I am lost in a chaotic maze of narrow, noisy, crowded alleyways. It is just as well Abdel knows the way. Locals and tourists jostle each other for space as they barter and haggle with stallholders. The constant warning cry of 'Balak! We dive into doorways and squeeze against stalls to avoid being crushed by donkeys and men pushing carts piled high with bread, fruit and vegetables.
At the entrance to the ancient tanneries I am given a sprig of mint to hold to my nose to disguise the stench of rancid meat. Little has changed over the centuries. Men still clamber inside the honeycomb of vats filled with brilliant red and yellow dye. They are practically submerged as they trample the hides which are laid out to dry in the sun. The pretty, tiled courtyard at the Dar Baibou riad in Chefchaouen Next day, with the freak heatwave still raging, we decide to abandon our morning's hike and drive directly to our next destination.
On the way we come across a spectacular spring festival taking place along the roadside. Hundreds of Berber tribesmen dressed in flowing robes and turbans are competing in horsemanship trials. We join throngs of spectators to watch the teams riding in unison at full gallop, brandishing silver and brass muskets and leaving a cloud of red dust in their wake.
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